You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at

  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at

  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required

  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Standardisation in Digital Twin Architectures in Manufacturing



Enxhi Ferko, Alessio Bucaioni, Patrizio Pelliccione , Moris Behnam

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper




Engineering digital twins following standardised reference architectures is an upcoming requirement for ensuring their adoption and facilitating their creation, processing, and integration. The ISO 23247 standard proposes a reference architecture for digital twins in manufacturing, including an entity-based reference model and a functional view specified in terms of functional entities. During our experience with projects in the field, we noticed that standards, and in particular the ISO 23247 standard, are not completely followed. In this paper, we analyse to what extent digital twin architectures documented in the literature are aligned with the reference architecture presented in the ISO 23247 standard. We achieved this through a mixed-methods research methodology that includes the analysis of 29 digital twin architectures in the manufacturing domain resulting from a systematic literature review of 140 peer-reviewed studies, a survey with 33 respondents, and four semi-structured, in-depth expert interviews. On the basis of our findings, practitioners and researchers can reflect, discuss, and plan actions for future research and development activities.


author = {Enxhi Ferko and Alessio Bucaioni and Patrizio Pelliccione and Moris Behnam},
title = {Standardisation in Digital Twin Architectures in Manufacturing},
month = {March},
year = {2023},
url = {}