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Towards Interoperable Digital Twins: Integrating SysML into AAS with Higher Order Transformations


Enxhi Ferko, Luca Berardinelli , Alessio Bucaioni, Moris Behnam, Manuel Wimmer

Research group:

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


3rd International Workshop on Digital Twin Architecture (TwinArch) and Digital Twin Engineering (DTE)


The functional suitability of digital twin systems relies on accurately capturing, modeling, and exchanging data from their corresponding assets or processes. Consequently, achieving interoperability among various components and different digital twin systems is crucial. In the current landscape, characterized by various languages supporting diverse semantic models, achieving interoperability is a complex task. Achieving interoperability might involve translating diverse models, either peer-to-peer or through a central pivotal model. In this study, we propose a model-driven engineering approach that leverages higher-order transformations in conjunction with the Asset Administration Shell, acting as the pivotal model to tackle the interoperability challenges associated with digital twin systems. Higher order transformations are a specific type of model transformation, characterized by their input and/or output being model transformations themselves. Our hypothesis suggests that such transformations would eliminate the need to manually craft multiple translations toward the Asset Administration Shell. Instead, a single higher-order transformation would automatically generate these translations. We chose the Asset Administration Shell as our pivotal model, because it is widely recognized as a foundational element for application interoperability in Industry 4.0/5.0. We illustrate our approach through a vehicle use case represented using the Systems Modeling Language version 2 and consolidating this description into an Asset Administration Shell model. Hence, we showcase the applicability and suitability of our proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge, our work represents the first effort to address the translation of Systems Modeling Language version 2 into the Asset Administration Shell.


author = {Enxhi Ferko and Luca Berardinelli and Alessio Bucaioni and Moris Behnam and Manuel Wimmer},
title = { Towards Interoperable Digital Twins: Integrating SysML into AAS with Higher Order Transformations},
month = {June},
year = {2024},
booktitle = {3rd International Workshop on Digital Twin Architecture (TwinArch) and Digital Twin Engineering (DTE)},
url = {}